Gynacantha (B) immaculifrons Fraser, 1956
Plain Duskhawker

Type locality: Lubumbashi (Elisabethville), DRC


Males is not particularly close to other Gynacantha species, but recalls bullata-group by (a) rim of metastigma same colour as thorax; (b) often only 1 row between R2 and R3 proximal to Pt; (c) brace veins present; (d) anal triangle of 3 cells. However, set apart from the rest by (1) mark on frons absent or at most forming faint T, rather than being distinct and black; (2) genital fossa border with 0-4 (rather than 8-20) scattered denticles; (3) S3 cylindrical and of almost uniform width throughout, at most slightly narrowed, rather than distinctly waisted near base; (4) lateral carinae S8 bare, rather than with denticles, in contrast with denticulate ventral carinae; (5) cerci distinctly widened just before apex, rather than being of even width throughout. [Adapted from Dijkstra & Clausnitzer 2014]

Habitat description

Standing and mostly temporary waters shaded by forest. Usually with coarse detritus and mostly a soft (like muddy) bottom. Recorded at around 400 and 500 m above sea level.


confirmed: Democratic Republic of the Congo; Malawi; Tanzania

Appendages (dorsal view)

Abdominal segment 2 (ventral view)

Head (dorsal view)

Map citation: Clausnitzer, V., K.-D.B. Dijkstra, R. Koch, J.-P. Boudot, W.R.T. Darwall, J. Kipping, B. Samraoui, M.J. Samways, J.P. Simaika & F. Suhling, 2012. Focus on African Freshwaters: hotspots of dragonfly diversity and conservation concern. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10: 129-134.


  • Fraser, F.C. (1956). Pseudagrion superbum, Gynacantha flavipes and Gynacantha immaculifrons, three new species of Odonata from the Belgian Congo. Revue Zoologie Botanique Africaines, 54, 382-387. [PDF file]

Citation: Dijkstra, K.-D.B (editor). African Dragonflies and Damselflies Online. [2024-05-29].