Gynacantha (A) villosa Grünberg, 1902
Brown Duskhawker

Type locality: Langenburg, Tanzania


Male is similar to G. africana by (a) rim of metastigma black, contrasting with colour of thorax; (b) wings may be tinted, but without distinct subcostal rays; (c) mainly 4-5 rows in fork of IR3; (d) largely 2-3 cell-rows between R2 and R3 proximal to Pt; (e) brace veins absent; (f) anal triangle of 3-6 cells; (g) S3 waisted near base; (h) cerci with distinct ventral lump near base (lateral view); (i) cerci widened and sharply cut-off at end, inner border bisinuous, concave roughly 2/3 from base. However, differs by (1) ranging from Kenya and Uganda to NE South Africa and N Botswana; (2) 22-28 Ax in Fw, rather than 28-37; (3) 2, rather than 3 cell-rows between R2 and R3 proximal to Pt, save occasional cell; (4) ventral carinae S5-6 and usually S4 with denticles, rather than all being bare. [Adapted from Dijkstra & Clausnitzer 2014]

Habitat description

Standing and mostly temporary waters shaded by (gallery) forest. Probably often with coarse detritus and a soft (like muddy) bottom. From 0 to 2200 m above sea level, but mostly below 1700.


confirmed: Botswana; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Ethiopia; Kenya; Malawi; Mozambique; Namibia; Nigeria; Republic of South Africa; Rwanda; Tanzania; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe

Female © Gerhard Diedericks

Male © Hans-Joachim Clausnitzer

Appendages (dorsal view)

Appendages (lateral view)

Abdominal segment 2 (ventral view)

Map citation: Clausnitzer, V., K.-D.B. Dijkstra, R. Koch, J.-P. Boudot, W.R.T. Darwall, J. Kipping, B. Samraoui, M.J. Samways, J.P. Simaika & F. Suhling, 2012. Focus on African Freshwaters: hotspots of dragonfly diversity and conservation concern. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10: 129-134.

Barcode specimen(s):

Female; Tanzania, Pemba North Region, Pemba Island © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


  • Grünberg, K. (1902) Sitzungsberichte Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde Berli 1902 (9): 230-237
  • Ris, F. (1921). The Odonata or Dragonflies of South Africa. Annals South African Museum, XVIII, 245-452. [PDF file]
  • Balinsky, B.I. (1961). Observations on the dragonfly fauna of the coastal region of Zululand, with descriptions of three new species (Odonata). Journal Entomological Society Southern Africa, 24, 72-91. [PDF file]
  • Pinhey, E.C.G. (1961). Dragonflies (Odonata) of Central Africa. Occasional Papers Rhodes-Livingstone Museum, 1-97. [PDF file]
  • Pinhey, E.C.G. (1966). Check-list of dragonflies (Odonata) from Malawi, with description of a new Teinobasis Kirby. Arnoldia, 2, 1-24. [PDF file]
  • Pinhey, E.C.G. (1962). New or little-known dragonflies (Odonata) of Central and Southern Africa. Occasional Papers National Museum Southern Rhodesia, 26, 892-911. [PDF file]
  • Schouteden, H. (1934). Annales Musee Congo belge Zoologie 3 Section 2, 3, 1-84. [PDF file]
  • Lieftinck, M.A. (1969). Odonates Anisoptères - Odonata Anisoptera. Explor. hydrob. Lac Bangweolo and Luapula, 14, 1-64. [PDF file]
  • Pinhey, E.C.G. (1971). Odonata collected in Republique Centre-Africaine by R. Pujol. Arnoldia, 5, 1-16. [PDF file]

Citation: Dijkstra, K.-D.B (editor). African Dragonflies and Damselflies Online. [2024-05-29].