Eleuthemis umbrina Dijkstra & Lempert, 2015
Shadow Firebelly

Type locality: Jebeh River at Johnsonville, Liberia


Male is morphologically like E. buettikoferi with (a) moderate size, Hw 24.5-26.0 mm (n = 3); (b) the distinct black border to labrum; (c) the vertex and occipital triangle blackened at least basally; (d) the Fw discoidal field entirely of two or more rows of cells; (e) the abdomen being entirely whitish pruinose on the upperside with maturity; (f) the largely blackish secondary genitalia; and (g) the acute tip to the hook of the hamule. However, (1) the ventral portions of the sternites of S1-9 are yellow marked with black on the ventral carinae up to the (largely) black S9, rather than orange with black carinae at most up to S5, with S9 largely orange [photos]. While both species vary strongly, the new species also tends to have (2) the frons darkened at the base of its central furrow, anterior to the median ocellus, and not entirely pale brown; (3) more contrasting black and yellow thoracic markings with usually a black line along the humeral suture’s full length, thus not absent on its ventral section, and the black stripe on the metepimeron dead-ended dorsally, i.e. not curving forward to (almost) join the metapleural black line; and (4) the dark tips of Fw are less sharply defined and extend below Pt, rather than just touching its distal end, while Hw tips are often more darkened too. [Adapted from Dijkstra, Kipping & Mézière 2015]

Habitat description

Mostly streams, but also rivers, shaded by forest. Usually with overhanging branches and/or submerged roots, probably especially faster sections with dead trunks or branches and coarse detritus. From 0 to 500 m above sea level.


confirmed: Ghana; Liberia; Sierra Leone

© KD Dijkstra

Map citation: Clausnitzer, V., K.-D.B. Dijkstra, R. Koch, J.-P. Boudot, W.R.T. Darwall, J. Kipping, B. Samraoui, M.J. Samways, J.P. Simaika & F. Suhling, 2012. Focus on African Freshwaters: hotspots of dragonfly diversity and conservation concern. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10: 129-134.

Barcode specimen(s):

Male; Sierra Leone, Eastern Province, Gola Forest © Dijkstra, K.-D.B. & A. Dayeker

Male; Liberia, Grand Gedeh County, Putu Iron Ore Mining concession © Dijkstra, K.-D.B. & A. Dayeker

Male; Liberia, Grand Gedeh County, Putu Iron Ore Mining concession © Dijkstra, K.-D.B. & A. Dayeker

Male; Liberia, Nimba County, Lugbeyee-Bonlah Road © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


  • Dijkstra, K.-D.B., Mézière, N., and Kipping, J. (2015). Sixty new dragonfly and damselfly species from Africa (Odonata). Odonatologica, 44, 447-678.

Citation: Dijkstra, K.-D.B (editor). African Dragonflies and Damselflies Online. http://addo.adu.org.za/ [2024-06-21].