Gynacantha (B) manderica Grünberg, 1902
Little Duskhawker

Type locality: Mandera (Ukami), Tanzania


Male is similar only to G. congolica by (a) the distinctly blackened triangular depression on the venter of the thorax anterior to the poststernum; (b) the dark mid and hind legs with pale streaks on the tibiae; and (c) the posterior portion of the genital fossa border densely set with denticles. However, is (1) widespread and found mostly in scrub and woodland; (2) larger, Hw 35.0-39.0 mm (n = 17) rather than 42.0-44.0 mm (n = 4); (3) the black mark on the frons is narrow and mushroom-like, rather than broad and pentagonal; (4) there are dark dots on the fossae of the humeral and metapleural sutures; (5) the wing bases are clear; and (6) has 13-19 rather than 22-27 Ax in Fw. [Adapted from Dijkstra, Kipping & Mézière 2015]

Habitat description

Standing and mostly temporary waters shaded by gallery forest. Usually with coarse detritus and mostly a soft (like muddy) bottom. From 0 to 1700 m above sea level.


confirmed: Angola; Benin; Côte d'Ivoire; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Gambia; Ghana; Guinee-Bissau; Kenya; Malawi; Mozambique; Namibia; Nigeria; Republic of Guinea; Republic of South Africa; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Tanzania; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe; NOT confirmed: Burundi; Liberia

© Gerhard Diedericks

Female © Gerhard Diedericks

Appendages (dorsal view)

Abdominal segment 2 (ventral view)


Head (dorsal view)

Map citation: Clausnitzer, V., K.-D.B. Dijkstra, R. Koch, J.-P. Boudot, W.R.T. Darwall, J. Kipping, B. Samraoui, M.J. Samways, J.P. Simaika & F. Suhling, 2012. Focus on African Freshwaters: hotspots of dragonfly diversity and conservation concern. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10: 129-134.

Barcode specimen(s):

Female; Tanzania, Kigoma Region, Lower Malagarasi Basin © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


  • Grünberg, K. (1902). Sitzungsberichte Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde Berli, 9, 230-237.
  • Ris, F. (1921). The Odonata or Dragonflies of South Africa. Annals South African Museum, XVIII, 245-452. [PDF file]
  • Balinsky, B.I. (1961). Observations on the dragonfly fauna of the coastal region of Zululand, with descriptions of three new species (Odonata). Journal Entomological Society Southern Africa, 24, 72-91. [PDF file]
  • Pinhey, E.C.G. (1961). Dragonflies (Odonata) of Central Africa. Occasional Papers Rhodes-Livingstone Museum, 1-97. [PDF file]
  • Pinhey, E.C.G. (1966). Check-list of dragonflies (Odonata) from Malawi, with description of a new Teinobasis Kirby. Arnoldia, 2, 1-24. [PDF file]
  • Pinhey, E.C.G. (1962). New or little-known dragonflies (Odonata) of Central and Southern Africa. Occasional Papers National Museum Southern Rhodesia, 26, 892-911. [PDF file]
  • Schouteden, H. (1934). Annales Musee Congo belge Zoologie 3 Section 2, 3, 1-84. [PDF file]

Citation: Dijkstra, K.-D.B (editor). African Dragonflies and Damselflies Online. [2024-06-21].